Vitamin D forms and Vitamin K forms:
Vitamin D3 (cholecalciferol) belongs to the group of calciferols.Calciferols are seco-steroids (naturally occurring compounds derived from steroids) with vitamin D activity.
In addition to cholecalciferol, the subgroups Vit D2 (errogcalciferol) and calcitriol are also differentiated. At least 10 compounds with vitamin D activity are known.
Vitamin D is currently one of the most popular vitamins.
This is certainly derived from the many different functional properties.
When you list the cell types with vitamin D receptors, you can see how varied this vitamin is needed.
Some examples of cells that have an affinity for vitamin D:
• Pancreatic-beta cells
• Ovary cells
• Intestine enterocytes
• Skeletal muscle cells
• Creatinocyte cells (as well epidermis cells = outermost skin layer)
• Liver cells
• Prostate cells
• Gastric mucosal cells
• Endothelium of the arteries
• Chondrocytes (= cells of the articular surface)
• In distal kidney cells.
• Likewise, cells of the immune system such as leukocytes, macrophages, activated B-, T- lymphocytes are affine. Vitamin D is also needed to form the blood cells.
How does the body naturally recover calcitriol?
Vit. D undergoes some complicated conversion steps to several metabolites.
Step 1: The sun makes it possible ….
7-dehydro-cholesterol is stored in the skin. As soon as UV light hits the skin (280-315nm), it is converted to provitamin D3. Body heat can now produce vitamin D3 (cholecalciferol).
Old people, bedridden people, infants, toddlers, pregnant women, overweight, breastfeeding, people with dark skin color and people with Körperverhüllung are more susceptible to a deficiency of vitamin D3. For some time, sun creams and creams with UV blockers are also included.
Vitamin D3 and D2 can also be absorbed through the diet. As a dietary supplement, a vitamin D3 oil is recommended. Oil can provide better absorption for the fat-soluble vitamin.
Step 2: Liver microsomes:
Vitamin D3 (cholecalciferol) is produced under 25-hydroxylase (CYP 27) in calcidiol = 25 OH-vitamin D3, resp. 24 OH Vitamin D3 converted.
Step 3: Kidney tissue
In the last step, calcitrol = 1,25- (OH) 2-vitamin D3 is synthesized with the help of 1-α-hydroxylase (CYP1).
The amount of Vit. D3 is represented in different spellings. I.U. and μg. On the packages for consumption / intake you will find the units 1 μg = 1000ng = 40 I.E.
What recommendation is there from the European side for the daily amount of vitamin D?
Although the recommended daily intake is determined by the EFSA (European Food Safety Authority), it still differs in part from the European member states. For example, EFSA currently has a daily value of 4000I.E. recommended for adults. Germany regulates to 800 I.E. for adults per day. This sets Germany apart in a striking way from the other European member states.
There are many studies and research on vitamin D.
In the Graz study, a daily vitamin D value of 800-1000 I.E was determined for children! This is especially true at low fish consumption. Even if most of the day is spent in buildings, a supplement may be useful.
How many hours of the day are we sitting in the office or children at school?
Artificial light is not a substitute for the sun. This study also applies to children with skin irritations such as atopic dermatitis. Allergies or food intolerances may also necessitate additional needs. Furthermore, a better immune performance was observed in cold diseases with good vitamin D levels.
Therapists recommend measuring the vitamin D3 level.
Vitamin D can be determined in 12 hours of fasting venous blood. However, there are very different views on vitamin D levels in the blood. The tendency goal is to realize that a higher supply of vitamin D bring far-reaching improvements. Part of the literature speaks of an optimal supply of 80-120 ng / ml in the blood.
On a sunny day, the body can make up to 20,000 IU.
A well-dosed sunbath can make a small miracle! In winter, the sunny days are missing and the Vit. D level drops. An additional nutritional supplement is a good help here. It should be noted in this context that the elimination half-life (degradation half-life) of
calcidiol (one stage before the final product – calcitriol) lasts up to 31 days!
In the foreground, however, is the requirement quantity of the body.
Currently, high levels of vitamin D3 are popular. In this context, a therapeutic control is recommended. When replenishing vitamin D, high daily doses are often used over a defined period of time. Thereafter, work continues with sufficient daily supply of vitamin D.
Where can vitamin D3 still play a role?
For a healthy immune system, the differentiation of the defense cells (eg monocytes to macrophages, the stimulation of phagocytosis (from eating small particles to smaller cells) and the reduction of CRP (= inflammation markers) has been proven.
In addition, the sun vitamin also has a positive effect on further immune cells and cytokines of the immune system. In autoimmune diseases such as MS and rheumatoid forms that have been stimulated by Th-1, good immune modulation is to be expected!
Vitamin D is known to be associated with bone metabolism.
It helps to maintain calcium phosphate homeostasis (steady state).
In this regard, parathyroid hormone may activate osteoclasts and
inactivate calcitonin osteoclasts. Osteoclasts are bone eaters and
osteoblasts build up the bone. That is the difference.
The maturation and activity of the bone cells is favored by vitamin D.
Increase in muscle mass, strengthening of muscle strength. The beneficial influence on the skeletal muscles also has an effect on the heart muscle and the heart muscle vessels.
With sufficient vitamin D administration, a positive effect on blood pressure can be expected.
Pancreas endocrine function:
-Maintaining insulin production.
Furthermore, calcitriol can protect the human islets of Langerhans in the pancreas against cell death induced by cytokines (= proteins for signal transmission between cells).
Adolescents who lose weight slowly on diet often have a low vitamin D level.
Mental Perfromance / Mood:
With reduced comprehension, delayed development and maturation of the brain, a reduced vitamin D level was observed. Especially in the winter months, the mood-enhancing effect of vitamin D is well appreciated.
Vitamin D play a role with regard to the promotion of cell maturation and cell differentiation, the involvement of cell death and the inhibition of telomerase expression. This is discussed in the context of the prevention of malignant cell degeneration in the intestine, prostate and breast.
Vit. D also inhibits the shortening of telomeres. This effect is highly valued in the field of anti-aging, as the shortening of telomeres in connection with cell division (or aging) plays an important role in aging!
Example of drugs that can inhibit absorption of Vit. D?
This is only a small selection and in no way claims to be complete. Some antacids (acid blockers), colestipol, colestyramine, colchicine, proton pump inhibitors such as omeprazole. Glucocorticoids, laxatives, paraffin oil or alcohol. Cytostatics, HIV protease inhibitors, etc. Who would like to experience more exact one over possible interactions of medicines and Vitamin D finds, for example in the book ?micro nutrients? of Mr. U. Grosser information.
There are situations in which vitamin D can only be administered under therapeutic supervision:
Some examples are:
increased calcium levels in the blood, an increased amount of calcium in the urine, kidney diseases, pseudohypoparathyroidism, sarcoidosis.
What role does vitamin K2 MK7 play as a monosubstance and as a combination of vitamin D3?
As with vitamin D, Vitamin K has several subforms.
Sometimes you have to look very carefully to find out what is offered.
Vitamin K includes the subgroups Vitamin K1, K2, K3 and K4.
Vitamin K is attached to the γ-carboxyl groups of glutamic acid residues and for the conversion.
Vitamin K dependent proteins. Probably the most potent subgroup of K vitamins is
Vitamin K2 Mk7 (Menaquinone). Vit. K, like vitamin D, is one of the fat-soluble vitamins.
For this reason, an oily solution is also suitable as a carrier material for the vitamin.
Vitamin K2 MK7 can be produced in two processes.
All-trans and cis.
Due to the different forms of attachment, the body can only be optimally supplied with vitamin K (all trans).
The reason is that vitamin K2MK7 (all trans) fits like a key in the enzyme helix and thus can only work in the body.
Cis-binding forms are almost without effect!
Production: K2 vitamins (menachinone, farnochinone) can be formed in the body by intestinal bacteria (Lactobacillus acidophilus). A healthy intestinal flora is very important!
With vitamin K2 Mk7, the “7” refers to the isoprene units, just by the way.
There are different numbers of isoprene units.
The storage location of vitamin K1 and K2 is mainly the liver. It is also stored in the adrenal glands, lungs and bone marrow. However, the storage capacity of the organs is low and can only bridge a deficiency situation of two weeks.